Editor's Note: One of our interests is to introduce contemporary and new generations of Vietnamese diaspora and other readers to the development of traditional Vietnamese musical heritage. The subject menu is self-explanatory insofar as providing an approximate chronology of Vietnamese musical evolution. We will also feature some composers whose works reflect their Vietnamese and/or or other Asian heritage. There are two sections to this Music page : a) feature articles and/or current news/issues; and b) permanent collections of Viettouch.com Music. My plans have been revised to include a more expansive perspective on the subject of music. Music is a common language for many nationalities and different ethnic background therefore, it is consistent for me to invite multicultural guest writers to contribute their thoughts to this webpage. I am particularly thrilled about this wonderful addition to our site. Another added change is that I will contribute a few articles on selected issues and/or events that involved Vietnamese musical evolution. We are also adding complementary links with other sites to provide the readers more information on particular artists and/or musical organizations that are supportive of our goals and approaches. The goals of the permanent collection have also changed in that a) the Library of Sounds will continue to be fine-tuned as the audio files are made available to our site; b) when possible, our electronic files will keep profiles of guest writers with their sound files; and c) when possible, audio files of contemporary composers whose works reflect Vietnamese and/or Asian influences in their writings. One final thought is that we are but one source of viewpoints on the history of Vietnamese music and its evolution. We are excited about our guest articles which will provide a truly diverse forum to our Music page. Our quest to discover, explore, and share our ideas is constant even as we continually change and alter our scope and approaches towards that end.

Tuyet A. Tran, NYC 1998

It's our intention to provide a sound sample of each instrument that we've assembled for our musical project. When possible, our sound files will also include the scale and the microtonal ranges within the scale. We look forward to hearing from those composer(s) who will be inspired to write for these ancient and some not so ancient instruments.


Moon Lute
Dan Nguyet (moon) or Dan Kim
A 2-string with name refers to shape of the sound box. Unlike the Chinese yue'k'i`n, Dan Kim has long, slender fingerboard with unequal frets which allows extreme modulations. Similar to the Cambodian chapey deng veng.

Sun Lute
Dan Nhat (sun) or Dan Doan (short)
Dan Nhat has five strings and short, slender fingerboard with unequal frets which allows extreme modulations.

Dan Ti Ba
Dan Ty Ba is a four-string. It has a pear-shaped body and a neck with a fretted fingerboard that is usually bent just below the tuning pegs. Similar to the Chinese P'i P'â. Size: 37" L X 9-1/2" W.

Dan Tam (3), Cai Tam, or Cai Dan Huyen Tu
Dan Tam has 3 strings, keyless/fretless fingerboard and ivory capotasto. The neck and cylindrical sound-box are typically decorated/covered with snake skin.

Dan Sen
Dan Sen is a 2-string, 14 keys instrument. It is only used in the Hat Boi (Traditional Drama) in South Viet Nam.

The Singer's Lute
Dan Day or Dan Nha Tro
Dan Day is used to accompany the A-Dao (professional singers) in North Viet Nam.

Dan 'Bass'
The double bass, recently developed to take the role of the Western Bass Guitar. It has four strings, a fretted fingerboard, and a large, square body. It is tuned in fourths and has the sloping shoulders and flat back characteristic of the viola. It has a low range beginning about three octaves below center C.

Dan Nhi or Dan Co
A fiddle played with a bow, having 2 strings tuned at intervals of a fifth, an unfretted fingerboard, and a pipe-bowl-shaped sound-box. It is capable of great flexibility in range, tone, and dynamics. There are 3 holding positions: The cornet is presses against the musician's hip as he/she walks. The wooden resonant box is held between the musician's knees sitting on a stool. The cylinder is held between the musician's feet in sitting position. Dan Nhi is called Dan Co in South Viet Nam.

Dan Gao or Dan Ho
Slightly bigger than the Dan Nhi with hemispherical resonance box made of coconut. Its sweet sonority resembles that of cello. Same holding positions as of Dan Co.

Dan Bau or Dan Doc Huyen
An acoustical instrument consisting of a sounding box with one string and a movable bridge, used to study musical tones. The instrument's single string stretchs over a trapezoidal wood soundboard. The soundboard is made of the hard rind of the bau (type of gourd). Subtle ornamentations, glissandi sounds, and imitation of the human voice could be produced by simultaneously plucking the string and pulling the ancient whammy bar. The whammy bar is a flexible bamboo stem which attachs to one end of the soundbox.

Strangest, oddest looking instruments in the world! It comes from the Ede people of the Tay Nguyen highlands. A cross between a harmonica and a fiddle. By using his/her mouth as a resonator, the musician can inflect or "pronounce" each note. Similar effects to the talk-box with electric guitar used by Peter Frampton or blow-pipe controller with synthesizer used by Funk musicians.

koh comes from the Mnong people.

Broh (Jarai); Brou (Bahnar)
. . .

Dan Tranh or Thap Luc (16)
16-21 string zither composes of a flat sound box with strings stretched over it and played horizontally with the fingertips or a plectrum. Similar to the Chinese tcheng, strings are supported by movable wooden bridge for tuning. Size: 38" L X 6" W (small end) X 8" W (big end)

Duong Cam
A zither with 36 wire strings of graduated lengths stretched over a sound box, played by striking with 2 padded hammers or by plucking. Notes are difficult to bend or ornate. Similar to Iranian santur and Western hammered dulcimer.


Ong Sao (Ong Sao Quan, Sao Ngang) or Ong Dich
A high-pitched woodwind instrument consisting of a slender tube closed at one end with keys and 6 finger holes on the side and an opening near the closed end across which the breath is blown. Ong Dich includes 1 supplementary hole close-off by a membrane of paper between the blowing end and the 6 finger holes.

Sao Truc
A woodwind made out of special bamboo. Similar to the Chinese ti.

Sao Mot Lo
The 1-hole flute's ornamentations and tonal nuances is created by varying the pressure and shape of the lips and varying the position of the finger over the single hole. It has piercing upper ranger which sound could cuts through the large ensemble.

An end-blown flute made of special bamboo or occasionally bronze. Similar to the Chinese hsaio.

The sol is a flute, and sounds like a whistle. It has a high-pitched range.

The Vietnamese oboe is a slender woodwind with 6 holes, a conical bore and a double reed mouthpiece, having a range of three octaves and a penetrating, poignant sound. There are 2 kinds of Ken: Ken Trung (big) and Ken Tieu (small). Size: 18" L (former) ; 6" (latter).

lam kep
The lam kep comes from the H'mong minority, from the high mountains of northern Viet Nam. Its sound is easily distinguished from any other Vietnamese flute because it has a reed, which gives it an almost fiddle-like sound. It is most often heard in love songs and spring festival songs.

Dinh Nam
The Dinh Nam comes from the people of Ede. Similar to a Pan Pipe.

To Diep
To Diep is made of Buffalo horn. It comes from the Bahnar people.


Dai Co, Trong Chau or Trong Cai
The great drum consists of a hollow cylinder or hemisphere with a membrane stretched tightly over one or both ends, played by beating with sticks. In Traditional Drama Orchestra, the Dai Co is used to accentuate the well-sung passages of the singers.

Trong Ba Bong

Trong Chien

Trong Lenh

Trong Tran
Trong Tran is supported by a tripod stand, played with a pair of wooden stick. Monks used a similar drum to accompany prayers which is called Trong Bat Nha.

Trong Nhac
Trong Nhac consisting of Trong Cai (female) or Trong Vo (military) and Trong Duc (male) or Trong Van (civil). The Trong Duc has lower range. Size: 15" DIA.

Trong Com or Phan (cooked rice) Co (drum)
Trong Com is tuned by a piece of cooked rice paste glued at the center of the membranes. Size: 8" DIA. (center) 6" DIA (ends); 15 to 21" L.

A tall, usually tapering single-headed drum typically played by beating with the hands. Similar to Latin-American conga.

Truncated Cone-shaped Drum
Trong Bat Cau

One-end skin Drum
Cai Bong
A percussion consisting of a hollow vase-shaped sound-body with a membrane stretched tightly over one end strained by a system of strings which are fastened at the swelling of the sound-body, played by beating with the hands or sticks.

Chieng, Lenh, and Thanh La (Dong La)
A rimmed metal disk that produces a loud, sonorous tone when struck with a padded mallet. There are 3 kinds of gongs: the Chieng, the Lenh, and the Thanh La (Dong La).

Small Gongs
Tam Am
Set of 3 connected tuned gongs that are played by beating with a felt-covered hammer or stick used in a Nha Nhac (Royal Music Orchestra).

Chap Cha or Nao Bat

String of Globular Bells
Day Luc Lac; Bahnar: Greng neng; Jorai: Yao prong;

Coin Castanet
Cai Phach, Quan Tien Phach or Cai Sinh Tien
An instrument consisting of jingling disks that are fitted onto a 2" W X 12" L wood piece. It is shaken with one hand and struck with the other. Often used in the plural. They are used in the Bat Am (Royal Orchestra).

Phach or Cai Sinh
A rhythm instrument consisting of 37" L. bamboo, and played with 2 wooden sticks. It was used in the Giao Phuong (Popular Orchestra) under Le dynasty (16-18th century).

Phach Bang or Cai Chac
A rhythm instrument consisting of a pair of ivory, bamboo or hardwood, and clapped together with the hands. Often used in the plural. It is called Song (2) Lang (bamboo) in South Viet Nam. Size: 2" THK X 10 to 12" L.

The Mo is made of scooped wood, played by striking with a wooden stick to scan prayers.

Mo Sung Trau
The Mo is made of scooped Buffalo-horn, played by striking with a wooden stick. Size: 6 to 9" L

Chuong or Chung
The Great Bell consists of a hollow metal vessel set into vibration by a blow from a clapper within or a hammer without. Apparently originating in Asia, bells have been used in connection with all major religions except Islam.

Chuong Gang
The Gang Bell is made of cooper, played by striking with a mallet at the beginning of the Khai Kinh.

Bien Chung
A portable set of 12 bells tuned to the chromatic scale and played with 2 light hammers.

The k'longput comes from the Tay Nguyen plateau. A percussion instrument consisting of a mounted row of bamboo graduated in length and diameter to sound a chromatic scale, played by clapping hands together, forcing air through the tubes and producing a sound vaguely similar to a panpipe.

A wooden percussion with xylophone-like sound. It comes from the Tay Nguyen region.

Chi D. Nguyen
References: Vietnamese Traditional Music & The Music of Viet Nam


Contemporary Vietnamese popular music is a diverse genre that reflects several combinations of ancient, modern, Vietnamese regional differences, and foreign influenced concepts borne from the effects of forced and/or voluntary migration, inter-racial unions due to a myriad of historical events occurred throughout several centuries in Viet Nam. It would be disingenuous to box contemporary popular Vietnamese music into one convenient category without considering Vietnamese ethnic and cultural differences that existed over time. The Vietnamese inherently cultural and ethnic differences woven with foreign influences that produced a variety of popular music. Vietnamese migration and/or travelling to all corners of the world began well over a century ago. Music was and still is the common vein that runs through all Vietnamese people regardless of their nationalities, ethnic mixtures and, background. What is considered as Vietnamese music had survived acculturation during the one thousand years rule under Chinese occupation followed by one hundred years of French colonial rule. This section is by no means a sweeping study of contemporary popular music for that would be a sizeable undertaking. It is an introduction to a cross-sectional group of composers and musicians whose music are accessible to Asian and Western audience. Their diverse works are as much the byproducts of intrinsically Vietnamese regional, ethnic, and cultural differences as the foreign influences that shaped their musical thoughts and ideas. These artists are but isolated representation of countless Vietnamese composers and musicians who continue to develop and flourish within and without Viet Nam. The selection is mindful of each artist's multicultural experiences and ethnic differences that invariably shaped her or his musical stories. Each artist brings her or his unique talent and personal thoughts to produce their musical visions.

Photo credit: ACT

In 1995 Nguyên Lê recorded "Tales from Viêt-Nam", a special project of Vietnamese music, with a 8-piece band combining jazz & traditional musicians. In the meantime, he played in trio with Michell Benita (b) and Peter Erskine, recorded on Michel Portal's new album with Ralph Towner (g), and worked with Ornette Coleman on one of his contemporary music pieces, "Freedom Statue". In June 95, he was invited by the WDR Big Band to play on "Azure Moon" with the YELLOW JACKETS and Vince Mendoza. In July 95, the Stuttgart Festival invited him to be one of the guitarists to celebrate the "Universe of Jimi Hendrix". Other participants included Trilok Gurtu, Terry Bozzio, Cassandra Wilson, Jack Bruce, Vernon Reid, David Torn, Victor Bailey, Pharaoh Sanders .... In Germany he worked with John McLaughlin & Markus Stockhausen. In January 1997 Nguyên Lê recorded his album "Three Trios". It features the guitarist in three different settings including bassists Marc Johnson, Dieter Ilg and Renaud Garcia-Fons and drummers Peter Erskine, Danny Gottlieb and Mino Cinelu. Following the release of "Three Trios" Nguyên Lê toured in the USA, winning great critical acclaim for his concert in New York's legendary Birdland. In the fall of 1997 he joined Paolo Fresu's highly acclaimed new quartet. Together they recorded "Angel". As early as 1992, Nguyên Lê had been working on projects with the Algerian singer Safy Boutella. 1997 the Franco-Vietnamese guitarist followed these traces deeper into the Maghreb. On "Meli Meli", Cheb Mami's most recent album (with Khaled, Algeria's most popular singer), Nguyên Lê not only played guitar, he also produced some of the songs. Finally, in early 1998 he asked Cheb Mami's drummer Karim Ziad to introduce him to the world of the Berbers and popular Algerian music. Once again he brought together a multicultural band with the Serbian pianist Bojan Zulfikarpasic, Austrian saxophonist Wolfgang Puschnig, Italian jazz musicians Paolo Fresu and Stefano Di Battista, the Berbersingers of B'net Houariyat, Cheb Mami himself, and two friends out of Lê's Vietnamese project; Huong Thanh and Hao Nhien. With them he recorded "Maghreb and Friends".

Born in Saigon, Viêt-Nam, Huong Thanh comes from a family of renowned traditional musicians. Her father Huu Phuoc was one of the singers of Cai Luong, Renovated Vietnamese Theater, a kind of opera which mixes traditional singing, dance and theater. Cai Luong was created in 1916 by a group of southern music lovers, with the heritage of traditional theater styles from the north, Hat Boi and Hat Cheo, southern chamber music and the introduction of elements of french music. Cai Luong was very popular from the 30s on. In Vietnamese singing theres a special and very strong relation between melody and words: there are six linguistic tones, and the same syllabe can have different meanings depending on the pronounced pitch. The poetry of the text has its internal melody, and the singer has to convey the emotions of both. Huong Thanh embodies the particularities of the Vietnamese traditional singing, full of detailed inflections, ornements, finesse and diversity of expression and timbres. In 1995 she met Nguyên Lê who brought her to the world of jazz, a music she had never performed before. The adventure of Tales from Viêt-Nam began: the band has toured in the most important festivals of France, Italy, Germany, Portugal, England, Switzerland.


The approach of this forum has expanded to include current news, reviews and articles provided to our site through the generosity of our guest musicians, composers and/or musicologists. The one-on-one interview project is still on our agenda and remains a work-in-progress which I hope to finalize in the near future. In some instances, our guest visitors may have their own websites which we're happy to provide the link-up for our readers. We hope you will enjoy the expanded format of our Music page.

Tuyet A. Tran

Phong Nguyen Ensemble - Music and Dance of Viet Nam
1/17/98 Washington Square Church, New York

The staging platform had the Dan Tranh - a seventeen-stringed zither, and a few wooden stands, several piles of bamboo tubes held by strings, and a wooden branch mounted on a stand. The evening was my first experience to hearing live highlanders' music performed on ancient instruments that I've never seen outside of textbooks. The location proved to be quite uncooperative to the acoustics of these instruments which explained several microphones and amplifiers spreading throughout the staging area. These ancient instruments, not unlike their Western counterparts, have low acoustics because of the materials used to construct these instruments.

Before the performance, I went backstage to meet the performers who dressed in traditional Vietnamese costumes with the exception of Dock Rmah, the ensemble's instrument maker and a percussionist who wore a highlander's costume. Phong Nguyen, the founder of the ensemble told me that Dock Rmah is a survivor of the Jarai people of Viet Nam. The other members of the group were Kim Oanh, a singer and a zither player, To Trinh, another zither player, and flutist, Miranda Arana. When I wandered over the instruments for a closer look, Dock Rmah approached to find out whether or not I was a musician. My yes reply triggered a delighted reaction and without prompting, he launched into an animated story of how he became an instrument maker out of despair being detained in the camps. His words were simple but the essence of his story was far more telling to the listener. He expressed how his spirit was depleted from the lack of music. He recalled how it was spiritually wonderful for him when he completed the first instrument and began to play for others and himself. He constructed his instruments based on childhood memories of observing his father and other instrument makers. Smiling, he recounted that whatever life dealt him, he could now survive and cope with the mental and physical hardships that came his way. He was a Jarai and for many generations music had sustained his people aside from living close to nature. His musical training was without a classroom or formal education. I was further amazed at how adept he was in tuning his instruments while talking to me. When I remarked about his ability, he smiled and said that the notes and scales were always the same in his head. How simple it was for him and for those who spent years in ear training would have bartered anything for this gentle musician's natural gift. It was quite evident that music and breathing were one and the same for Dock Rmah. The evening was already wonderful before the performance even began.

Before I write further, a brief comment on the highlands of Viet Nam is necessary as background to the program. The generic term "highland" is the terrain of the Truong Son mountain range that is visible from both Cambodia and Laos. The large land mass that was once populated by the highlanders started in Southern Viet Nam, crossing over the eastern flanks of Cambodia, Laos and an area of Northern Viet Nam. For centuries, the highlands have been home to some thirty or so ethnic Vietnamese who speak Mon-Khmer, Malayo-Polynesian and the Viet languages. The ancestors of the present highlanders had settled in these areas since approximately 2,000 BC. The Bahnar, Jarai, Ede, Trieng, Gie, Mnoog and Stieng groups are the most musical people among the Vietnamese highlanders. In 1949, a prehistoric stone-bladed lithophone was discovered in Ndot Lieng Krak providing background to these Vietnamese people's musical culture. They've preserved and performed on some of the oldest instruments in the world, some with the tuning systems that possibly predated the Pelog and Slendro systems of Indonesia. The highlanders' music and recitations of poetry served many functions in their lives from story telling, courtships, historical re-enactments, social and festive events to spiritual invocation. Apparently, the highlanders' fates were not destined to continue peacefully in Viet Nam. Many have uprooted their families to travel half way across the world to the U.S. It is not by accident that the majority of the Vietnamese highlanders have chosen to settle in the mountain ranges of Wyoming, Montana and in the case of Dock Rmah, the Appalachian mountains of North Carolina.

The concert began as I watched the piles of rough wood hewn instruments came to life under the talented hands of Dock Rmah. The audience was treated to a performance of Dock Rmah on his handmade T'rung - a bamboo xylophone. The instrument had seven tubes hung on a branch by two cords and held by Mr. Rmah's legs as he struck the T'rung with a pair of wooden mallets. I was fascinated by the series of chromatic microtones that this instrument produced, as Dock Rmah sang a folk song "Celebrating the Young Rice Plant". The next four folk songs introduced an array of Dock's homemade instruments such as the Hiho which is a woodwind instrument. It has eight bamboo tubes held together by strings. The Goong is a bamboo zither with fourteen metal strings held by wooden pegs fitted on the tube where a player could gently twist of each peg to change the microtonal pitches. The Broh is a two-stringed bamboo lute of the Bahnar people. The K'long put, a percussive instrument made of bamboo tubes with varying length which would be adjusted according to the scale that the player used. The performer clapped his/her hands in front of the bamboo tubes to produce the desired pitches. The performer does not touch this instrument. Lastly, Dock also made the Kipah- aerophones.

The audience clearly enjoyed Mr. Rmah's enthusiastic performance on these instruments. The music was colorful, rhythmic, occasionally metallic, with plenty of microtones and evidently following specific forms with less improvisation than I thought. As the audience applauded and cheered for Dock Rmah, I couldn't help but noticed that he poured himself into his performance and derived joy from producing music. Dock told me later that he had a great time. The finale of the first half of the program was a lively duet of the K'long put and the Kipah performed by Dock Rmah and Phong Nguyen to celebrate the "Harvest Festival".

The second half of the program featured traditional Vietnamese music as performed by the rest of the ensemble. Phong Nguyen is an ethnomusicologist graduated from Sorbonne, Paris. He is a veteran performer of several traditional Vietnamese instruments, including the Dan Bau and the Dan Nguyet. A brief comment on some of the instruments will help explain their unique sounds. The Dan Bau - a Vietnamese monochord, has one string that stretches along the body of the instrument from the peg to the vertical stick fixed on the upper left end. The Dan Nguyet is a moon-shaped lute with a long neck. The high frets fixed on the neck allow the player to press deeply on the strings to produce different tones and texture of sounds. This particular instrument dated back to the 18th century as it was used in chamber, ritual and theatrical music ensembles within and without the imperial court. The Dan Tranh is a zither with 16 to 21 metal strings with high and moveable bridges which allow the performer to shift microtonal pitches quite easily. It is tuned to a pentatonic scale and has a range of three octaves. The tuning uses the anhemitonic intervallic structure by using the lowest pitched string as 1:1-2 for whole tone, 2-3 a whole tone plus a semitone, 3-4 a whole tone, 4-5 whole tone and 5-6 completing an octave at the sixth string. For this evening concert, the Dan Tranh was most likely tuned in two modal systems based on the regional music performed, the Bac - North and the Nam - South. The Bac mode starts at the first string G, A, C, D, E. The Nam mode starts at the second string A, C, D, E, G. The Nam - Southern modal system is used more often in traditional Vietnamese music performances than the Northern mode. A well-trained zither player can readily produce any other tones by manipulating the strings and bridges. This particular instrument doesn't suffer any acoustics' maladies as other ancient instruments. The Sao Truc is a bamboo flute of varying lengths and amount of finger holes. Ms. Arana played on the Sao - flute that has six finger holes, five on the top side and one on the lower side for the thumb. Once again, depending on the techniques used to play this instrument, the flutist can produce all pitches in the pentatonic scales and microtones. Lastly, there was one snare drum and an assortment of small percussion instruments such as the gongs, bells, temple blocks and coin clappers.

The program featured some known Vietnamese folk songs from Southern, Central and Northern regions. It is a credit to this ensemble that the performers stayed within the traditional Vietnamese musical modes and structures without veering off to western influences (which dominate modern Vietnamese music). Traditional Vietnamese musical structures have several modal systems with varying forms that in some instances, resemble traditional Indian musical structure. Its usage of ostinato is as common as the ornamentations applied to each piece. In music as in life, Vietnamese music has distinctly geographical, cultural and linguistic differences dating back to the first century. The music performed during the evening remarkably retained all of the regional distinctions and characteristics unique to the South, Central, Hue, and North. The musical cultural differences remain uniquely distinct to date. Performers would be trained to speak, intone and play different types of regional music. In other words, a Southern performer would have to learn the Northern mode, language, method of intoning, and the scales unique to that region. The two soloists, Phong Nguyen performed an improvisation of the " Song of Farewell" on the Dan Bau and To Trinh on the 17-stringed zither drew a great deal of enthusiasm and applause from the audience. Mr. Nguyen also performed a piece entitled Morning in the Highlands on the Dan Nguyet -lute accompanied by flutist, Ms. Arana. Ms. Trinh performed on the Dan Tranh - the seventeen-stringed zither, a familiar southern piece named The Black Bird Crossing the River and variations.

The evening concluded with taped and live music performed by the ensemble and Ms. Oanh intoned words from a ritual dance, " In Praise of the Mountain God" . It was a delight for me and apparently the audience thought as much. I've learned a great deal more than just enjoying the music. It was their mutual love of music that drew these performers together from American born Ms. Arana, a graduate from Wesleyan University who spent several years in Viet Nam to study Vietnamese musicology, traditional flute performance and language to Dock Rmah, a Jarai who fashioned his own instruments and had never set foot inside a conservatory, whereas To Trinh, Kim Oanh and Phong Nguyen had graduated from the National Conservatory of Music in Saigon, Viet Nam. This performance also brings to mind how innately multicultural music is in that it speaks to the souls whether they are Westerners or Asians which was what I saw in the audience. My kudos goes to the World Music Institute for bringing the Phong Nguyen Ensemble to New York City for their delightful performance.

Ms. T.A. Tran is a Vietnamese New Yorker of Hue heritage, a pianist, composer, writer and currently, the editor of this webpage.