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  VIETNAM HISTORY

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In 20000 BC, before the first history was recorded in writings, there had been already among people the legends and mythology about the origin of Viet nation from HUNG VUONG. These are stories on HONG BANG dynasty, offspring of dragon and fairy, bag of hundred eggs, eighteen kings of Hung Vuong dynasty, Son Tinh - Thuy Tinh's conflict, Thanh Giong's victory over An foreign aggressors, folk of betel and areca nuts, "banh chung banh day", watermelon ..... All these legends together can be regarded as a folk history. These historic legends were firstly collected and compiled by the contemporary authors' view. The two symbolic works of this aspect were Viet Dien U Linh by Ly Te Xuyen with a foreword in 1329, and Linh Nam Trich Quai by Tran The Phap in around end of Tran (1226), then edited by Vu Quynh and Kieu Phu in Le era (1428) with prologue in 1492-1493.

According to one of the numerous legends concerning the origin of their state, a Vietnamese prince named LAC LONG QUAN came to Northern Viet Nam from his home in the sea. He married a princess from the mountain, AUCO, who is also described as the wife of a Northern Intruder (Chinese?), on the top of Mount Tan Vien, sometimes around 2800 BC Instead of the commonplace results of a union, the princess laid 100 eggs - when they hatched, a son emerged from each of them. Afterward, the parents separated because he was dragon from the sea, she was lady fair from the mountain. Therefore, the mother led half the progeny across the northern mountains, and became the ancestors of the Muong. While the remaining fifty followed the father to the sea and became ancestors of the Vietnamese. The most valiant of the sons was chosen to be the first of the eighteen HUNG VUONG kings. Lac Long Quan, a prince of the sea, and Au Co, a princess of the mountains, are regarded by the Vietnamese as their primal ancestors.

Chu Nguyen
Tai lieu tham khao: Lich su Viet Nam & Trials and Tribulations of a Nation

Viet Nam has been successively known as...

257 BC Van Lang Hung or Lac dynasty
257-207 Au Lac Thuc dynasty
207-11 Nam Viet Trieu dynasty
3 BC-203 AD Giao Chi Han dynasty [first part]
203-544 Giao Chau Han dynasty [second part]
544-603 Van Xuan Ly dynasty
603-939 An Nam Duong dynasty
968-1054 Dai Co Viet Dinh dynasty
1054-1400 Dai Viet Ly and Tran dynasties
1400-1407 Dai Ngu Ho dynasty
1427-1802 Dai Viet Le and Nguyen dynasties
1802 Viet Nam Gia Long
1832 Dai Viet Minh Mang
04/1945 Viet Nam First national government


ORIGIN
The new state based on the irrigation system in the region of the three rivers in Upper Tonkin must have produced excess wealth, requiring protection against predatory enemies from the exposed borders to the North and the South. Therefore the need for extensive use of bronze technology for various weaponry. By the Dong son period, the kingdom of VAN LANG extended to Hunan in Southern China. The capital was moved to Vinh Phu where the three rivers - Song Da (Black River), Song Ma (Red River) and Song Chay meet. What led to the fall of the HUNG rulers of VAN LANG, known to us partly through the Dong son cultural remains, cannot be established by historical evidence. By 300 BC, it seems the people in the region of Kwangtung and Tonkin were divided into AU VIET, namely, Vietnamese of the highlands and LAC VIET, Vietnamese of the plains. AN DUONG VUONG, about whom also not much is known, politically united them into the kingdom of AU LAC. Most scholars by now, accept that the Vietnamese are not descended from one single racial group, that they are instead a racial mixture of Austro-Indonesian and Mongolian races. The government is still very simple. Hung Vuong is the head of Van Lang. In Hung Vuong title, Vuong (a Chinese word, meaning King) is clearly to be added by later-time historians because of the concept of the head of a state should be the King. In Muong language, there is term kun in lang kun indicating the eldest son of the first family in line of descent who ruled the Muong. Probably, the word Hung is the Chinese phonetic transcription of an ancient Vietnamese which is synonymous and homonymous with kun, khun, khunzt ... to address the chief of tribe, the leader. He was assisted by Lac Hau (civilian chiefs). Van Lang was composed of 15 "bo"(administrative division), and according to Viet Su Luoc, these "bo" were originally 15 tribes. Each "bo" was headed by Lac Tuong (military chiefs), or according to a number of legend and mythological tradition, these functionaries were also named bo chua, bo tuong, phu dao (meaning chief of tribes).

HISTORICAL EXCERPTS
Archaeological findings indicate that the early peoples of the Red River delta area may have been among the first East Asians to practice agriculture, and by the 1st century BC they had achieved a relatively advanced level of Bronze Age civilization. In 221 BC the Ch'in dynasty in China completed its conquest of neighboring states and became the first to rule over a united China. The Ch'in Empire, however, did not long survive the death of its dynamic founder, Shih Huang Ti, and the impact of its collapse was soon felt in Viet Nam. In the wreckage of the empire, the Chinese commander in the south built his own kingdom of Nam Viet (South Viet; Chinese, Nan Yüeh); the young state of Au Lac was included. In 111 BC, Chinese armies conquered Nam Viet and absorbed it into the growing Han Empire. The Chinese conquest had fateful consequences for the future course of Vietnamese history. After briefly ruling through local chieftains, Chinese rulers attempted to integrate Viet Nam politically and culturally into the Han Empire. Chinese administrators were imported to replace the local landed nobility. Political institutions patterned after the Chinese model were imposed, and Confucianism became the official ideology. The Chinese language was introduced as the medium of official and literary expression, and Chinese ideographs were adopted as the written form for the Vietnamese spoken language. Chinese art, architecture, and music exercised a powerful impact on their Vietnamese counterparts.

39. TRUNG SISTERS
Vietnamese resistance to rule by the Chinese was fierce but sporadic. The most famous early revolt took place in AD 39, when two widows of local aristocrats, the Trung sisters, led an uprising against foreign rule. The revolt was briefly successful, and the older sister, Trung Trac, established herself as ruler of an independent state. Chinese armies returned to the attack, however, and in AD 43 Viet Nam was reconquered.

939. INDEPENDENCE
The Trung sisters' revolt was only the first in a series of intermittent uprisings that took place during a thousand years of Chinese rule in Viet Nam. Finally, in 939, Vietnamese forces under Ngo Quyen took advantage of chaotic conditions in China to defeat local occupation troops and set up an independent state. Ngo Quyen's death a few years later ushered in a period of civil strife, but in the early 11th century the first of the great Vietnamese dynasties was founded. Under the astute leadership of several dynamic rulers, the Ly dynasty ruled Viet Nam for more than 200 years, from 1010 to 1225. Although the rise of the Ly reflected the emergence of a lively sense of Vietnamese nationhood, Ly rulers retained many of the political and social institutions that had been introduced during the period of Chinese rule. Confucianism continued to provide the foundation for the political institutions of the state. The Chinese civil service examination system was retained as the means of selecting government officials, and although at first only members of the nobility were permitted to compete in the examinations, eventually the right was extended to include most males. The educational system also continued to reflect the Chinese model. Young Vietnamese preparing for the examinations were schooled in the Confucian classics and grew up conversant with the great figures and ideas that had shaped Chinese history. Vietnamese society, however, was more than just a pale reflection of China. Beneath the veneer of Chinese fashion and thought, popular mostly among the upper classes, native forms of expression continued to flourish. Young Vietnamese learned to appreciate the great heroes of the Vietnamese past, many of whom had built their reputation on resistance to the Chinese conquest. At the village level, social mores reflected native forms more than patterns imported from China. Although to the superficial eye Viet Nam looked like a "smaller dragon," under the tutelage of the great empire to the north it continued to have a separate culture with vibrant traditions of its own.

1010. LY DYNASTY
Like most of its neighbors, Viet Nam was primarily an agricultural state, its survival based above all on the cultivation of wet rice. As in medieval Europe, much of the land was divided among powerful noble families, who often owned thousands of serfs or domestic slaves. A class of landholding farmers also existed, however, and powerful monarchs frequently attempted to protect this class by limiting the power of feudal lords and dividing up their large estates. The Vietnamese economy was not based solely on agriculture. Commerce and manufacturing thrived, and local crafts appeared in regional markets throughout the area. Viet Nam never developed into a predominantly commercial nation, however, or became a major participant in regional trade patterns.

1225. TRAN'S TERRITORIAL EXPANSION
Under the rule of the Ly dynasty and its successor, the Tran (1225-1400), Viet Nam became a dynamic force in Southeast Asia. China's rulers, however, had not abandoned their historic objective of controlling the Red River delta, and when the Mongol dynasty came to power in the 13th century, the armies of Kublai Khan attacked Viet Nam in an effort to reincorporate it into the Chinese Empire. The Vietnamese resisted with vigor, and after several bitter battles they defeated the invaders and drove them back across the border. While the Vietnamese maintained their vigilance toward the north, an area of equal and growing concern lay to the south. For centuries, the Vietnamese state had been restricted to its heartland in the Red River valley and adjacent hills. Tension between Viet Nam and the kingdom of Champa, a seafaring state along the central coast, appeared shortly after the restoration of Vietnamese independence. On several occasions, Cham armies broke through Vietnamese defenses and occupied the capital near Hanoi. More frequently, Vietnamese troops were victorious, and they gradually drove Champa to the south. Finally, in the 15th century, Vietnamese forces captured the Cham capital south of present-day Da Nang and virtually destroyed the kingdom. For the next several generations, Viet Nam continued its historic "march to the south," wiping up the remnants of the Cham Kingdom and gradually approaching the marshy flatlands of the Mekong delta. There it confronted a new foe, the Khmer Empire, which had once been the most powerful state in the region. By the late 16th century, however, it had declined, and it offered little resistance to Vietnamese encroachment. By the end of the 17th century, Viet Nam had occupied the lower Mekong delta and began to advance to the west, threatening to transform the disintegrating Khmer state into a mere protectorate.

1428. LE DYNASTY
The Vietnamese advance to the south coincided with new challenges in the north. In 1407 Viet Nam was again conquered by Chinese troops. For two decades, the Ming dynasty attempted to reintegrate Viet Nam into the empire, but in 1428, resistance forces under the rebel leader Le Loi dealt the Chinese a decisive defeat and restored Vietnamese independence. Le Loi mounted the throne as the first emperor of the Le dynasty. The new ruling house retained its vigor for more than a hundred years, but in the 16th century it began to decline. Power at court was wielded by two rival aristocratic clans, the Trinh and the Nguyen. When the former became dominant, the Nguyen were granted a fiefdom in the south, dividing Viet Nam into two separate zones. Rivalry was sharpened by the machinations of European powers newly arrived in Southeast Asia in pursuit of wealth and Christian converts. By the late 18th century, the Le dynasty was near collapse. Vast rice lands were controlled by grasping feudal lords. Angry peasants—led by the Tay Son brothers—revolted, and in 1789 Nguyen Hue, the ablest of the brothers, briefly restored Viet Nam to united rule. Nguyen Hue died shortly after ascending the throne; a few years later Nguyen Anh, an heir to the Nguyen house in the south, defeated the Tay Son armies. As Emperor Gia Long, he established a new dynasty in 1802.

1830. FRENCH INTERVENTION
A French missionary, Pierre Pigneau de Behaine, had raised a mercenary force to help Nguyen Anh seize the throne in the hope that the new emperor would provide France with trading and missionary privileges, but his hopes were disappointed. The Nguyen dynasty was suspicious of French influence. Roman Catholic missionaries and their Vietnamese converts were persecuted, and a few were executed during the 1830s. Religious groups in France demanded action from the government in Paris. When similar pressure was exerted by commercial and military interests, Emperor Napoleon III approved the launching of a naval expedition in 1858 to punish the Vietnamese and force the court to accept a French protectorate. The first French attack at Da Nang Harbor failed to achieve its objectives, but a second farther south was more successful, and in 1862 the court at Hue agreed to cede several provinces in the Mekong delta (later called Cochin China) to France. In the 1880s the French returned to the offensive, launching an attack on the north. After severe defeats, the Vietnamese accepted a French protectorate over the remaining territory of Viet Nam.

1854. COLONIAL RULE & RESISTANCE
The imposition of French colonial rule had met with little organized resistance. The national sense of identity, however, had not been crushed, and anticolonial sentiment soon began to emerge. Poor economic conditions contributed to native hostility to French rule. Although French occupation brought improvements in transportation and communications, and contributed to the growth of commerce and manufacturing, colonialism brought little improvement in livelihood to the mass of the population. In the countryside, peasants struggled under heavy taxes and high rents. Workers in factories, in coal mines, and on rubber plantations labored in abysmal conditions for low wages. By the early 1920s, nationalist parties began to demand reform and independence. In 1930 the revolutionary Ho Chi Minh formed an Indochinese Communist party. Until World War II started in 1939, such groups labored without success. In 1940, however, Japan demanded and received the right to place Viet Nam under military occupation, restricting the local French administration to figurehead authority. Seizing the opportunity, the Communists organized the broad Vietminh Front and prepared to launch an uprising at the war's end. The Vietminh (short for Viet Nam Doc Lap Dong Minh, or League for the Independence of Viet Nam) emphasized moderate reform and national independence rather than specifically Communist aims. When the Japanese surrendered to the Allies in August 1945, Vietminh forces arose throughout Viet Nam and declared the establishment of an independent republic in Hanoi. The French, however, were unwilling to concede independence and in October drove the Vietminh and other nationalist groups out of the south. For more than a year the French and the Vietminh sought a negotiated solution, but the talks, held in France, failed to resolve differences, and war broke out in December 1946. The conflict lasted for nearly eight years.

1954. DIEN BIEN PHU & FIRST MASS EXODUS FROM NORTH TO SOUTH
The Vietminh retreated into the hills to build up their forces while the French formed a rival Vietnamese government under Emperor Bao Dai, the last ruler of the Nguyen dynasty, in populated areas along the coast. Vietminh forces lacked the strength to defeat the French and generally restricted their activities to guerrilla warfare. In 1953 and 1954 the French fortified a base at Dien Bien Phu. After months of siege and heavy casualties, the Vietminh overran the fortress in a decisive battle.

1954. PARTITION
After Geneva, the Vietminh in Hanoi refrained from armed struggle and began to build a Communist society. In the southern capital, Saigon, Bao Dai soon gave way to a new regime under the staunch anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem. With diplomatic support from the United States, Diem refused to hold elections and attempted to destroy Communist influence in the South. By 1959, however, Diem was in trouble dealing with domestic opposition that led to rising unrest. The Communists decided it was time to resume their revolutionary war.

1975. VIET NAM WAR'S GRUESOME ENDING
In the fall of 1963, Diem was overthrown and killed in a coup launched by his own generals. In the political confusion that followed, the security situation in South Viet Nam continued to deteriorate, putting the Communists within reach of victory. In early 1965, to prevent the total collapse of the Saigon regime, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson approved regular intensive bombing of North Viet Nam and the dispatch of U.S. combat troops into the South. The U.S. intervention caused severe problems for the Communists on the battlefield and compelled them to send regular units of the North Vietnamese army into the South. It did not persuade them to abandon the struggle, however, and in 1968, after the North's bloody Tet offensive shook South Viet Nam to its foundations, the Johnson administration decided to pursue a negotiated settlement. Ho Chi Minh died in 1969 (?) and was succeeded by another leader of the revolution, Le Duan. The new U.S. president, Richard Nixon, continued Johnson's policy while gradually withdrawing U.S. troops. In January 1973 the war temporarily came to an end with the signing of a peace agreement in Paris. The settlement provided for the total removal of remaining U.S. troops, while Hanoi tacitly agreed to accept the Thieu regime in preparation for new national elections. The agreement soon fell apart because in early 1975 the Communists launched a military offensive. In six weeks, the resistance of the Thieu regime collapsed, and on April 30 the Communists seized power in Saigon. A mass exodus began. An estimated 2 million people set out by sea thus the term "boat people". For every person made it to the shore 2 others died of starvation, drowing or murdered, raped by pirates. The escapes continued many years afterward. Following the Fall of Saigon, Reeducation camps were set up by the communist government to imprison over 2+ million former military officers and government workers as means of revenge and repression. According to published academic studies in the United States and Europe, 165,000 people died in re-education camps due to tortured or abused. Prisoners were incarcerated for as long as 17 years, with most terms ranging from 3 to 10 years.

1976. COMMUNIST VIET NAM
In 1976 Vietnam beame a new Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. The conclusion of the war, however, did not end the violence. Border tension with the Communist government in Cambodia escalated rapidly after the fall of Saigon, and in early 1979 the Vietnamese invaded Cambodia and installed a pro-Vietnamese government. A few weeks later, Viet Nam was itself attacked by its Communist neighbor and erstwhile benefactor, China. Within Viet Nam, postwar economic and social problems were severe, and reconstruction proceeded slowly. Corruption further retarded Viet Nam's recovery. The country signed a peace agreement with Cambodia in 1991 and shortly thereafter restored diplomatic relations with China. The United States removed a trade embargo in 1994.

WHO'S WHO IN VIET NAM HISTORY?

1(2879BC) Hng Dng Lc Tc National Founder
2 Hng Hin Sng Lm  
3 Hng Lân    
4 Hng Vip    
5 Hng Hy    
6 Hng Huy    
7 Hng Chiêu    
8 Hng V    
9 Hng Ðnh    
10 Hng Hy    
11 Hng Trinh    
12 Hng V    
13 Hng Vit    
14 Hng Anh    
15 Hng Triu    
16 Hng To    
17 Hng Nghi    
18(258BC) Hng Du    

Kinh Duong Vuong reigns over the Xich Quy kingdom that spread in the North up to the Blue river; in the South to Central Viet Nam; in the West up to Sseutch'ouan; and in the East as far as the sea. The Hong Bang dynasty that reigns over the Van Lang kingdom situated in Tonquin and in the Northern part of Central Viet Nam.

The Thuc dynasty
257-208 An Dng Vng Thc Phn  

The Trieu dynasty
207-136 Triu V Vng Triu Ð  
136-124 Dng Vn Vng Triu H  
124-112 Triu Minh Vng Triu Anh T  
112 Triu Ai Vng Triu Hng  
111BC Triu Dng Vng Triu Kin Ðc  

Chinese general Tch'ao To (Trieu Da) who reigns over the Nan-yue (Nam Viet) kingdom with capital at Fan-yu, subdued the Au Lac kingdom. He founded the Trieu dynasty that reigns at Fan-yu. In Tonquin (Kiao-tche, Giao Chi), legend of My Chau and Trong Thuy attached to the Co Loa capital (Phuc Yen province).

Trung Nu Vuong
39-43AD Trng N Vng Trng Trc & Nh First queens

Trung Trac and Trung Nhi. In 39, when two widows of local aristocrats, the Trung sisters, led an uprising against foreign rule. The revolt was briefly successful, and the older sister, Trung Trac, established herself as ruler of an independent state. Chinese armies returned to the attack, however, and in 43 Viet Nam was reconquered.

Trung sisters' Homepage

Mt xin ra sch nc th,
Hai xin em li nghim xa h Hng
Ba ko oan c lng chng,
Bn xin vn vn s công lênh ny!

Foremost, I will avenge my country,
Second, I will restore the Hung lineage,
Third, I will avenge the death of my husband,
Lastly, I vow that these goals will be accomplished.

Trung Trac
Source: Thien Nam Ngu Luc, 17th century

Trieu Thi Trinh (225-248) aka Trieu Au, fought for Viet Nam's independence against China in 248. Defeated at the age of 23, she committed suicide.

Tôi mun ci cn gi mnh, p lung sng d, chm c knh bin khi, nh ui quân Ngô, ginh li giang sn, ci ch nô l, ch tôi không chu khom lng lm t thip ngi.

I want to track storms, ride hazardous waves, hunt sharks in the open sea, expel the Chinese invaders, restore the country, untie servitude, and never descend to be someone's concubine.

Trieu Thi Trinh
Source: Viet Su Thong Giam Cuong Muc

The earlier Ly and Trieu
544-548 Lý Nam Ð Lý Bôn Thiên Ðc
549-555 Lý Ða Lang Vng   Thiên Bo
549-570 Triu Vit Vng Triu Quang Phc  
571-602 Hu Lý Nam Ð   Lý Pht T

The Ngo dynasty
  Emperor   Reign Title
939-944 Ngô Vng   Ngô Quyn
944-950 Dng Bnh Vng cp ngôi Tam Kha
950-965 Ngô Nam Tn Vng   Xng Vn
951-959 Ngô Thiên Sch Vng   Xng Ngp

In a protracted war which ended with the celebrated battle of Bach Dang. General Ngo Quyen vanquished the Chinese invaders and founded the first National dynasty. Ngo Quyen transfered the capital to Co Loa, the capital of Au Lac Kingdom, thus affirming the continuity of the traditions of the Lac Viet people. Ngo Quyen spent 6 years of his reign fighting the continual revolts of the feudal lords. At his death in 967, the kingdom fell into chaos and became known as the land of "Thap Nhi Su Quan", the 12 feudal principlities constantly fighting each other.

Ngo Quyen's Homepage

The Dinh dynasty
968-979 Ðinh Tiên Hong B Lnh Thi Bnh
980 Ðinh Ph Ð Ðinh Ton Thi Bnh

The most powerful of the 12 feudal lords, Dinh Bo Linh rapidly ruled out the others. He reunified the country and took the imperial title of "Dinh Tien Hoang De" (The First August Emperor Dinh). He negotiated a non-aggression treaty in exchange for tributes payable to the Chinese every 3 years. This set the traditions with China which were to last for centuries. On the domestic front, Dinh Tien Hoang established a royal court and a hierarchy of civil and military servants. He instated a rigorous justice system and introduced the death penalty to serve as a deterrent to all who threatened the new order of the new kingdom. He organized a regular army divided into 10 Dao. Security and order were progressively re-established, inaugurating a new era of "Thai Binh" (peace). He was assasinated in 979 by a palace guard, who according to the Annals, saw "a star falling into his mouth" - a celestial omen heralding promotion. The heir to the throne was only 6 years old.

The earlier Le dynasty
980-1005 Lê Ði Hnh Lê Hon Thiên Phc
1005 (3d) Lê Trung Tông   Long Vi
1006-1009 Lê Long Ðnh (Lê Nga Triu) ng Thiên

Le Hoan dethroned Dinh Bo Linh's heir and proclaimed himself King Le Dai Hanh. He retained the capital in Hoa Luu and succeeded in warding off several Chinese invasions. With peace assured on the northern border, he decided to pacify the South. In 982, Le Dai Hanh launched a military expedition against the Champa kingdom, entered Indrapura (present-day Quang Nam) and burnt the Champa citadel. The conquest of this nothern part of the Champa Kingdom brought about a marked Cham influence on Vietnamese culture, particular in the fields of music and dance. Le Dai Hanh devoted a great deal of energy to developing the road network in order to better administer the countrýs different regions. After 24 years of difficult rule, he died in 1005.

Genghis Khan, original name Temujin (1167?-1227), Mongol conqueror, whose nomad armies created a vast empire under his control, from China to Russia. He was born near Lake Baikal in Russia, the son of Yesukai, a Mongol chief and ruler of a large region between the Amur River and the Great Wall of China. At the age of 13, Temujin succeeded his father as tribal chief. His early reign was marked by successive revolts of his subject tribes and an intense struggle to retain his leadership, but the Mongol ruler soon demonstrated his military genius and conquered not only his intractable subjects but his hostile neighbors as well. By 1206 Temujin was master of almost all of Mongolia. In that year, a convocation of the subjugated tribes proclaimed him Genghis Khan (Chinese chêng-sze, "precious warrior"; Turkish khan, "lord"), leader of the united Mongol and Tatar tribes; the city of Karakorum was designated his capital. The khan then began his conquest of China. By 1208 he had established a foothold inside the Great Wall, and in 1213 he led his armies south and west into the area dominated by the Juchen Chin (or Kin) dynasty (1122-1234), not stopping until he reached the Shantung Peninsula. In 1215 his armies captured Yenking (now Beijing), the last Chin stronghold in northern China, and in 1218 the Korean Peninsula fell to the Mongols. In 1219, in retaliation for the murder of some Mongol traders, Genghis Khan turned his armies westward, invading Khoresm, a vast Turkish empire that included modern Iraq, Iran, and part of Western Turkestan. Looting and massacring, the Mongols swept through Turkestan and sacked the cities of Bukhoro and Samarqand. In what are now northern India and Pakistan, the invaders conquered the cities of Peshawar and Lahore and the surrounding countryside. In 1222 the Mongols marched into Russia and plundered the region between the Volga and Dnepr rivers and from the Persian Gulf almost to the Arctic Ocean. The greatness of the khan as a military leader was borne out not only by his conquests but by the excellent organization, discipline, and maneuverability of his armies. Moreover, the Mongol ruler was an admirable statesman; his empire was so well organized that, so it was claimed, travelers could go from one end of his domain to the other without fear or danger. At his death, on August 18, 1227, the Mongol Empire was divided among his three sons and gradually dissipated. Four of his grandsons, however, became great Mongol leaders in their own right. Genghis Khan's invasions were of great historical importance long after his death, for the Turks, who fled before him, were driven to their own invasion of Europe.

The Ly dynasty
1010-1028 Lý Thi T Lý Công Un Thun Thiên
1028-1054 Lý Thi Tông Lý Pht M Thiên Thnh
1054-1072 Lý Thnh Tông Lý Nht Tôn Long Thy
1072-1128 Lý Nhân Tông Lý Cn Ðc Thi Ninh
1128-1138 Lý Thn Tông Lý Dng Hon Thiên Thun
1138-1175 Lý Anh Tông Lý Thiên T Thiu Minh
1176-1210 Lý Cao Tông Lý Long Cn Trinh Ph
1211-1224 Lý Hu Tông Lý Sm Kin Gia
1224-1225 Lý Chiêu Hong Chiêu Thnh Thiên Chng

Nam Quc sn h Nam Ð c
tit nhiên nh phn ti thiên th
nh h nghch l lai xâm phm
nh ng hnh khan th bi h

Over the southern mountains and rivers,
the Emperor of the South shall reign,
This was written down in the Book of Heaven.
How dare those barbarians invade our soil?
They will surely meet with defeat.

Ly Thuong Kiet

In 1076, at the Nhu Nguyet river, during the battle with the Sung, Ly Thuong Kiet composed a poem and had it recited during the night to his soldiers and making them believe that the river god was speaking. Their morale was higher than ever, Ly army repelled the Chinese invaders.

Ly Cong Uan was a disciple of a famous monk, Van Hanh, who helped him into power in the Hoa Luu Court. Assuming the name Ly Thai To, the new sovereign inaugurated his dynasty with a change of capital. According to the Annals, king Ly Thai To saw the apparition of an ascending dragon on the site of the future capital and decided to name it Thang Long (Ascending Dragon).

Ly Thanh Tong rechristened the country Dai Viet. Ly Thai Tong, Ly Anh Tong, and Ly Cao Tong led the Buddhist sects of Thao Duong and founded some 150 monasteries in the region of Thang Long. The Ly dynasty consolidated the monarchy by setting up a centralized government and establishing a tax system, a judiciary system and a professional army. Important public works, including the building of dikes and canals, were undertaken inorder to develop argriculture and settle the population. Vietnamese art and culture thrived during the Ly dynasty.

The Tran dynasty
1225-1258 Trn Thi Tông Trn Cnh Kin Trung
1258-1278 Trn Thnh Tông Trn Hong Thiu Long
1279-1293 Trn Nhân Tông Trn Khâm Thiu Bo
1293-1314 Trn Anh Tông Trn Thuyên Hng Long
1314-1329 Trn Minh Tông Trn Mnh Ði Khnh
1329-1341 Trn Hin Tông Trn Vng Khai Hu
1341-1369 Trn D Tông Trn Ho Thiu Phong
1369-1370 Dng Nht L (cp ngôi) Ði Ðnh
1370-1372 Trn Ngh Tông Trn Ph Thiu Khnh
1373-1377 Trn Du Tông Trn Knh Long Khnh
1377-1388 Trn Ph Ð Trn Hin Xng Ph
1388-1398 Trn Thun Tông Trn Ngung Quang Thi
1398-1400 Trn Thiu Ð Trn n Kin Tân

Tran Hung Dao (1213-1300), Vietnamese general. In 1284, Kublai Khan leads a 500,000-man Chinese army into Viet Nam. Guerrillas organized by Tran Hung Dao virtually destroy the invasion force. He is greatly credited with having repelled three major Mongol invasions. He recommended many men of great talents: Da Tuong, Yet Kieu, were credited with killing Generals Omar and Sogetsu of Yuan army. Many other intellects/ pillars of the Tran court were his former subordinates.

Tran Hung Dao's Homepage

If the Mongols are not defeated, we will not retreat.

Tran Hung Ðao

In late 1287 at the Hoa river, Kien An province, Tran Hung Dao publicly swore oath before launching a big offensive against the Mongols. Omar (O Ma Nhi), the Mongol general was taken prisoner. Toghan (Thoat Hoan), son of Kublai was hurriedly withdrew.

Kublai Khan (1215-94), Mongol military leader, founder and first emperor (1279-94) of the Mongol Yüan dynasty in China, grandson of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and his best-known successor. Kublai Khan completed the conquest of China that was begun by his grandfather. From 1252 to 1259 he aided his brother Mangu Khan in the conquest of southern China, penetrating successfully as far as Tibet and Tonkin. Upon the death of Mangu in 1259 he became the khan, or ruler. Between 1260 and 1279 he succeeded in driving the Kin Tatars out of northern China and in subduing rebellious factions among the Mongols. In 1264 he founded his capital on the site now occupied by Beijing; it was called Khanbalik, which is romanized as Cambaluc or Cambalu. He relinquished all claims to the parts of the Mongol Empire outside China, consolidated his hold on China, and in 1279 established the Yüan dynasty as the successor to the Southern Sung dynasty. He undertook foreign wars in attempts to enforce tribute claims on neighboring states, conquering Burma and Korea. His military expeditions to Java and Japan, however, met with disaster. His name was known all over Asia and also in Europe. The court at Cambaluc attracted an international group of adventurous men, including the famous Venetian traveler Marco Polo. Kublai Khan did much to encourage the advancement of literature and the arts. He was a devout Buddhist and made Buddhism the state religion, but during his reign other religions were also tolerated. Bronze seal as authority emblem of Mongol officers.

Princess Huyen Tran, married to the King of Champa in 1307. The marriage extended the national territory southwards with the peaceful annexation of the Hue region and at the same time inaugurated the politics and diplomatic marriage.

The Ho dynasty
1400-1401 H Quý Ly   Thnh Nguyên
1401-1407 H Hn Thng   Thiu Thnh

Le Qui Ly, founded a dynasty under his ancestral name of Ho. Under Ho, the competitive examination system for administrators was modified to demand more practical knowledge of peasant life, mathematics, history, the Confucian classics and literature. Legal reforms were undertaken and a medical service established. In 1407, The Ming intervention provoked the fall of the Ho dynasty. During the short period of Chinese occupation that followed, the Vietnamese suffered the most inhuman exploitation.

The later Tran dynasty
1407-1409 Trn Gin Ðnh Trn Ð Ngi Hng Khnh
1409-1414 Trn Quý Khong   Trng Quang

The Le dynasty
1428-1433 Lê Thi T Lê Li Thun Thiên
1433-1442 Lê Thi Tông Lê Nguyên Long Thiu Bnh
1442-1459 Lê Nhân Tông Lê Bang C Thi Ha
1459 Lê Nghi Dân (cp ngôi) Thiên Hng
1460-1497 Lê Thnh Tông Lê T Thnh Hng Ðc
1498-1504 Lê Hin Tông Lê Tang Cnh Thng
1504 Lê Tc Tông Lê Thun Thi Trinh
1505-1509 Lê Uy Mc Lê Tun Ðoan Khnh
1509-1516 Lê Tng Dc Lê Oanh Hng Thun
1516-1522 Lê Chiêu Tông Lê Ý Quang Thiu
1522-1527 Lê Cung Hong Lê Xuân Thng Nguyên

Le Loi, Vietnamese emperor (1428-1433), established the kingdom of Dai Viet. He organized a resistance movement from his village and waged a guerrilla war against the China's Ming Empire. By employing a strategy of surprise attacks targeting his adversary's weakest points, Le Loi managed to further weaken the enemy and at the same time avoid combat with the superior Chinese forces. His enforcement of strict military discipline ensured that no pillaging was carried out by his troops in the regions under his control and this made him a very popular hero.

Nguyen Trai, poet and strategist, set down the Vietnamese strategy in an essay which subordinate military action to the political and moral struggle, it stated: "Better to conquer hearts than citadels". In 1426, Vietnamese finally routed the Chinese on a field at Tot Dong, west of Hano In an accord signed two years later, the Chinese recognized Viet Nam's independence, and apart from a last abortive attempt in 1788, China never again launched a full-scale assault against Viet Nam.

Binh Ngo Dai Cao
Great Proclamation on the Victory over China, 14th Century.

Our nation Dai Viet was established long ago as an independent nation with its own civilisation. Our borders with China have been drawn. Our customs and traditions are different from those of the foreign country to the North. The Dinh, Le, Ly, Tran dynasties have established our nation's independence concurrently with those of the Han, Tang, Sung, and Yuan in China. Our nation has sometimes been weak and sometimes powerful, but at no time have we suffered from a lack of heroes.

Nguyen Trai

Le Thai Tong, Vietnamese emperor, son of Le Thai To. His sudden death was followed by a decade of confusion marked by intrigues and plots within the Royal Court. Under his 36 year reign the country prospered as never before. Le Thanh Tong revised the fiscal system, encouraged argriculture and placed great emphasis on customs and moral principles. A writer himself, he founded the Tao Dan Academy and wrote the first volume of national history. He reorganized army won an easy victory over the Champa army in 1471. His farmer-soldiers excelled not only on the battlefields, but also in the fields where they established militarized argricultural communities wherever they went. In this way the national territory was gradually expanded southwards, until finally the Champa Kingdom was completely absorbed and assimilated in 1673.

Alexandre de Rhodes, the misionary who traveled through out Asia in the 17th century. An accomplished linguist, he improvised Portuguese into Quoc Ngu, still in use today, to transcribe the Vietnamese language in Roman letters instead of Chinese ideographs.

Opening page of Alexandre de Rhodes's Latin Annamese religious text

The Mac dynasty
Emperor   Reign Title
1527-1529 Mc Ðng Dung   Minh Ðc
1530-1540 Mc Ðng Doanh   Ði Chnh
1541-1546 Mc Phc Hi   Qung Ha
1546-1561 Mc Phc Nguyên   Vnh Ðnh
1562-1592 Mc Mu Hp   Thun Phc
1592-1592 Mc Ton   V An
1592-1593 Mc Knh Ch   Bo Ðnh
1593... Mc Knh Cung   Cn Thng
1596-1596 Mc Knh Chng    
1598-1598 Mc Knh Dng   Thi Bnh
1625-1638 Mc Knh Khoan   Long Thi
1638-1678 Mc Knh Hon   Thun Ðc
1666-1666 Mc Knh V    
1692-1692 Mc Knh Ch    

Mac Dang Dung, shrewded and scheming adviser at the Royal Court, seized control and found the Mac dynasty.

The later Le dynasty
1533-1548 Lê Trang Tông Lê Duy Ninh Nguyên Ha
1549-1556 Lê Trung Tông Lê Huyên Thun Bnh
1557-1573 Lê Anh Tông Lê Duy Bang Thiên Hu
1573-1599 Lê Th Tông Lê Duy Ðm Gia Thi
1600-1619 Lê Knh Tông Lê Duy Tân Thun Ðc
1619-1643 Lê Thn Tông Lê Duy Ky` Vnh T
1643-1649 Lê Chân Tông Lê Duy Hu Phc Thi
1649-1662 Lê Thn Tông Lê Duy Ky` (ln 2) Vnh T
1663-1671 Lê Huyn Tông Lê Duy V Cnh Tr
1672-1675 Lê Gia Tông Lê Duy Hi Do+ng Ðc
1676-1705 Lê Huy Tông Lê Duy Hp Vnh Tr
1705-1729 Lê D Tông Lê Duy Ðng Vnh Thnh
1729-1732 Lê Ð Lê Duy Phng Vnh Khnh
1732-1735 Lê Thun Tông Lê Duy Tng Long Ðc
1735-1740 Lê Ý Tông Lê Duy Thn Vnh Hu
1740-1786 Lê Hin Tông Lê Duy Diêu Cnh Hng
1787-1788 Lê Mn Ð Lê Duy Ky` Chiêu Thng

The Tay Son brothers
1778-1793 Nguyn Nhc   Thi Ðc
1788-1792 Nguyn Hu Nguyn Qung Bnh Quang Trung
1793-1802 Nguyn Quang Ton   Cnh Thnh

The Tay Son brothers - Nguyen Nhac, Nguyen Lu and Nguyen Hue - staged an uprising against the leading Le Lords.

Quang Trung (1752-1792) was born in Kien Thanh hamlet, Binh Thanh village, Binh Khe district (Binh Dinh province). In 1788, the Qing court decided to send an expeditionary corps to conquer the divided country. Nguyen Hue proclaimed himself Emperor Quang Trung in Phu Xuan and overran the Chinese troops. He pacified the Northern part of the country from the Chinese border to the Hai Van pass in the Center and devoted his energies to national rehabilitation, administrative reorganization and economic development. Significantly, Quang Trung replaced the Chinese Han with the popular Nôm as the official language. He died not long after 1792.

Loi du tuong si (Military persuasion)
Ðnh cho di tc
Ðnh cho rng en
Ðnh cho n chch luân bt phn
Ðnh cho n phin gip bt hon
Ðnh cho s tri nam quc anh hng chi hu ch

Fight, so our hair can grow
Fight, so our teeth can be black*
Fight, so the enemy's moral contradict within
Fight, so the enemy has no way out
Fight, because it's our birth-right.

Quang Trung

* Despite thousand years of Chinese occupation and their attempts to force the Vietnamese to adopt Chinese customs, the Vietnamese refused to stop blackening their teeth, a symbol of cultural and ethnic distinction. The process involved a mixing of sap of the Lac tree with lemon. A folk song sums up the old feminine beauty standards : "I love your rooster tail hairdo, charming speech, dimpled cheeks, and glossy blackened teeth exceed jet in their beauty".

The Nguyen dynasty
1802-1819 Nguyn Th T Nguyn Phc nh Gia Long
1820-1840 Nguyn Thnh T Nguyn Phc Ðm Minh Mng
1841-1847 Nguyn Hin T Nguyn Miên Tông Thiu Tr
1848-1883 Nguyn Dc Tông Nguyn Hng Nhim T Ðc
1883 (3d) Nguyn Dc Ðc Nguyn ng Chân Dc Ðc
1883 (6m) Nguyn Hip Ho Nguyn Hng Dt Hip Ho
1883-1884 Nguyn Gin Tông Nguyn ng Ðang Kin Phc
1884-1885 Nguyn Hm Nghi Nguyn ng Lch Hm Nghi
1886-1888 Nguyn Cnh Tông Nguyn ng Xy Ðng Khnh
1889-1907 Nguyn Thnh Thi Nguyn Bu Lân Thnh Thi
1907-1916 Nguyn Duy Tân Nguyn Vnh San Duy Tân
1916-1925 Nguyn Hong Tông Nguyn Bu Ðo Khi Ðnh
1926-1945 Nguyn Bo Ði Nguyn Vnh Thy Bo Ði

Gia Long, nicknamed Nguyen Anh, founding emperor of the Nguyen dynasty. In 1778, when the Nguyen Capital of Gia Dinh (Saigon) was seized by the Tay Son Rebellion, he was the only surviving member of the Nguyen lords. In 1787, he signed a treaty with France to restore the Nguyen in power in return for the cession port of Tourane (Da Nang) and the island of Poulo Condore. The promised assistant from France did not materialize. In 1801, he subdued the Tay Son with helps from the training in modern military techniques and Bishop of Adran. The dynastic name Gia Long, taken from the names of the southern (Gia Dinh) and northern (Thang Long) capitals, symbolized the reunification. The new capital was place at Hue (Phu Xuan), near the central coast.

Le Van Duyet (1763-1832), regional official in South Viet Nam during 19th century. In 1799, he led Nguyen forces against the Tay Son at Qui Nhon. Gia Long appointed him regent of South Viet Nam including the authority to conduct foreign relations with Europe and other Southeast Asian nations. His attempt to prevent Minh Mang's succession to the throne when Gia Long died, earned him the extreme wrath of the monarch. When he died in 1832, he was post-humously convicted and his grave desecrated, leading his adopted son, Le Van Khoi, to rebel. The revolt posed a serious threat to Minh Mang because advantage was taken of it by Siam sending its troops to Cochin-China. Minh Mang defeated Siamese troops and crushed the rebellion.

Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine, Bishop of Adran, the Catholic missionary who first evoked France's interest in Viet Nam. He befriended a pretender to the Vietnamese throne, Nguyen Anh, who founded the Nguyen dynasty. The Bishop of Adran saw an opportunity to expand the church's influence in the post Tay Son era and negotiated a promise of military aid for Nguyen Anh from the French Government in exchange for territorial and commercial rights.

Prince Canh, Gia Long's eldest son, who accompanied Pierre Pigneau de Be'haine to the court of Louis XVI at Versailles, where he caused a sensation. Canh was educated at a missionary school in Malacca and converted to Catholicism which made him the first Viet prince educated by Westerners.

Minh Mang, Nguyen's 2nd emperor, once prince Mien Tong, son of Gia Long, a gentle scholar who French propagandists of the time depicted as a cruel tyrant. The Catholic missions had sped up their evangelization of the people provoked Ming Mang's anti-Catholic policy which ordered the prosecution of Catholic missionaries and their Vietnamese converts. The anti-Catholic policy gave French a pretext to intervene in Viet Nam. The landing of a French party in the port of Tourane, in August 1858, heralded the beginning of the colonial occupation which was to last almost a century.

Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867). In 1826, he earned a doctorate in the civil service examaminations and entered the imperial bureaucracy. He served as a deputy chief of a diplomatic mission to China, and later was named province chief in Quang Nam and Binh Dinh provinces. In 1862 he was appointed to negotiate a treaty with Napoleon III following the defeat by French forces at Ky Hoa. When the French violated the pact, Phan commited suicide after pledging his sons never to cooperate with France.

Thieu Tri, Nguyen's 3rd emperor, became more and more entrenched in his Confucian doctrine, the country experienced an era of stagnancy. The court mandarins were increasingly blinded to the development of the outside world and worse still, implemented a policy of isolation that forbade any contact with foreigners. In 1843, When Tri began to imprison the missionaries, French government sent a military expedition to Indochina with orders to protect and defend French interests and free the missionaries.

Tu Duc, Nguyen's 4th emperor, whose crass persecution of Christians in his realm provided France with a pretext to pursue its colonial encroachment in the region. The execution of a Spanish bishop in 1857 led to the French capture of Saigon in 1859, and three years later Tu Duc was forced to cede part of Cochin China; by 1867 France had annexed all of it. Tu Duc's later attempt to play the French against intervention by China succeeded only in the French occupation of Tonkin in 1882, but he died shortly before the final reduction of his country to a French protectorate in 1883.

Ham Nghi, Nguyen's 8th emperor. After establishment of French Protectorate in 1884. Brother of Emperor Kien Phuc, who died after a brief reign in 1884, Ham Nghi rose to the throne at the age of twelve. In July 1845 he fled the capital of Hue with Regent Ton That Thuyet to launch the Can Vuong resistance movement against French occupation. Captured in November 1888, Ham Nghi was sent to live out his life in exile in Algeria, and died there in 1947. Left: 18 years old portrait by M. Vuillier when he started his term as prisoner.

Dong Khanh, Nguyen's 9th emperor, selected by the French to rule because of his docility. He reigned three years: 1885-1889. As his uncle, Emperor Tu Duc, had no children, Dong Khanh was adopted and made the Duke of Kien Giang.

Thanh Thai, Nguyen's 10th emperor under the French Protectorate. A son of Emperor Duc Duc, who reigned for only 3 days. He resented French domination and was deposed on suspicion of conspiracy in 1907. Exiled to the island of Reunion, he was later returned to Viet Nam.

Duy Tan was son of King Thanh Thai became Nguyen's 11th emperor at 7 years old. He reigned for 9 years: 1907-1916. After France deposed and exiled King Thanh Thai, they wanted a very young succesor to easily controlled. Eventually his rebellion against the French led to his exile to Reunion Island in 1916. Right: Duy Tan as a boy.

"Filthy hands could be washed, but how do you clean a filthy* country? The answer is simply to get rid of all foreign substances." (Khi tay ban thi lay nuoc ma rua, khi nuoc ban thi lay chi ma rua? Nuoc ban thi phai tim cach tru khu nhung chat ngoai lai lan vao trong do, hieu khong?)

EMPEROR DUY TAN, AT 8.
* Filthy= referring to the French colonial rulers.

Khai Dinh, Nguyen's 12th emperor. Khai Dinh means "auger of peace and stability." He reigned nine years: 1916-1925. He was the son of Emperor Dong Khanh. Like his father, as French puppet, he was unpopular with the people. His unpopularity reached its peak in 1923 when he authorized the French to raise taxes on the Vietnamese peasants to pay for the building of his palatial tomb.

Bao Dai, last emperor of the Nguyen dynasty of Viet Nam. Bao Dai means "keeper of greatness". He reigned 19 years: 1926-1945. He ruled under French and during the last days of World War II Japanese protection until forced out by the Viet Minh in 1945. He returned in 1949 to head the new state of Viet Nam til 1955, set up by France to rival the Communist government of Ho Chi Minh. After Viet Nam's partition in 1954, Bao Dai remained head of state in South Viet Nam until deposed by Premier Ngo Dinh Diem the following year. Thereafter he lived in exile and died in 1997 (83 yo).

Truong Cong Dinh, (1820-1864). Military commander of Vietnamese forces resisting the French conquest of South Viet Nam in the early 1860s. Born in Quang Nam Province, he was the son of a career military officer, who was appointed commander of royal troops in Gia Dinh Province, near present-day Saigon. When the threat of French invasion loomed in the late 1850s, he helped organize military settlements (cong dien) and became deputy commander of militia forces in the region. After taking part in the Battle of Ky Hoa (February 1861), Truong Dinh withdrew his forces south of Saigon, where he launched a prolonged guerrilla resistance against French occupation. Ordered to desist by the imperial court after the Treaty of Saigon (June 1962), he refused and continued the struggle. Wounded in battle in August 1864, he committed suicide.

Ton That Thuyet, lanh tu phong trao Can Vuong. Anti-French resistance leader in 19th century Viet Nam. After the Treaty of Protectorate in 1884 established French control over the Vietnamese Empire, Ton That Thuyet, an influential court official, fled with the young Emperor Ham Nghi in the hope of launching a nationwide revolt against French rule. Seeking refuge in the mountains north of Hue, Ton That Thuyet and Ham Nghi issued an appeal entitled "Save the King" (Can Vuong) to the Vietnamese people for support.

Phan Dinh Phung (1847-1895), lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia Huong Son, Huong Khe - Ha Tinh. Cung voi Cao Thang chi huy cuoc khoi nghia chong quan Phap trong 10 nam, 1885-1895. Anti-French resistance leader in late 19th-century Viet Nam. Raised in a scholar-official family from Ha Tinh Province, Phan Dinh Phung received a doctorate in the civil service examinations given in 1877. He served in the Imperial Censorate (Do Sat Vien), where he was noted for his integrity and was briefly imprisoned in 1883 for refusing to sanction a successor to the deceased Emperor Tu Duc not designated by the emperor himself. When Emperor Ham Nghi issued his famous "Can Vuong" (Save the King) appeal in July 1885, Phan Dinh Phung responded and launched a revolt in his native province of Ha Tinh. The movement quickly spread to neighboring provinces and lasted 10 years, despite numerous appeals to Phan Dinh Phung from colleagues who had chosen to collaborate with the French, and despite the desecration of his ancestral plot by the colonial regime. The movement was a nuisance to the French, but the rebels lacked weapons and central direction from the puppet court in Hue, and shortly after Phan Dinh Phung died of dysentery in December 1895 it collapsed.

Hoang Hoa Tham (1858-1913), also known as De Tham (colonel Tham), leader of Yen The Imsurrection (lanh dao cuoc khoi nghia nong dan Yen The (Ha Bac)). Holding out against French control for 30 years (da ben bi to chuc chong Phap trong gan 30 nam (1885-1913)). Pirate leader and patriot in French-ruled Viet Nam. Born in a poor peasant family in Hung Yen Province in the mid-19th century, De Tham was raised in Yen The, in the rugged mountains north of the Red River Delta, and as a young man joined the Black Flag bandit organization led by the pirate leader Luu Vinh Phuc. He became a bandit leader, stealing from the rich to help the poor. After vainly attempting to suppress his movement, the French made a truce with De Tham in 1893, but the latter began to cooperate with anticolonial elements and allegedly took part in a plot to poison the Hanoi military garrison planned by Phan Boi Chau. The French resumed their efforts to capture him, and he was assassinated by an agent of the French in 1913.

Phan Boi Chau (1867-1940), lanh tu phong trao Dong Du, 1904-1909. Founder of the anti-colonial movement in early 20th-century Viet Nam. He earned a second class degree (Pho bang) in the metropolitan examinations in 1900. In 1903 he formed a revolutionary organization called the Restoration Society (Duy Tan Hoi) under the titular leadership of Prince Cuong De. Two years later he established his headquarters in Japan, where he wrote patriotic tracts designed to stir anti-French sentiments among the general population and encourage young Vietnamese to flee abroad and join his exile organization. In 1912 he transformed the Modernization Society into a new organization, the Vietnamese Restoration Society (Viet Nam Quang Phuc Hoi). Several attempted uprisings in Viet Nam failed. Phan Boi Chau himself was briefly imprisoned in China. On his release in 1917, he appeared temporarily discouraged at the prospects of victory, writing a pamphlet entitled "France-Vietnamese Harmony" (Phap-Viet De Hue) . In 1925 Phan Boi Chau was seized by French agents while passing through the International Settlement in Shanghai. Brought under guard to Hanoi, he was tried and convicted of treason. He spent the remainder of his life in house arrest in Hue and died in 1940.

Cuong De (1882-1951), Prince. Member of the Nguyen royal house who took an active role in anti-colonial activities in French-ruled Viet Nam. A descendent of Prince Canh, the first son of founding Emperor Gia Long. Cuong De is a leader of Phong Trao Dong Du ("On the Way to the East" movement), led by the revolutionary Phan Boi Chau in support of Indochinese independence from France. The organization was encouraged by the victory of Japan over Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, and received financial support from China and Japan. Between 1905 and 1910, it sponsored some 200 Vietnamese to study in Japan.

Luong Van Can (1854-1927), founder of Tonkin Free School (sang lap Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc tai Ha Noi, 1907), was a Vietnamese mandarin, independence activist and writer. His most noted work is Nha Nuoc (The State). The school/ movement aimed to modernize Vietnamese society by abandoning Confucianism and and adopting new ideas from the West and Japan. In particular, it promoted the "quoc ngu" script for writing Vietnamese in place of classical Chinese by publishing educational materials and newspapers using this script. In March 1908, a tax revolt and an attempted poisoning of French soldiers in Hanoi were blamed on the leaders of the school by the French. Subsequently, all the leaders were arrested and the school's publications were suppressed.

Phan Chu Trinh (1872-1926), one of leaders of Duy Tan movement (thu linh cua phong trao Duy Tan), 1906-1908. His alias is Tay Ho (West Lake). He sought to end France's colonial occupation and attaining liberation by peace, appealing to French democratic principles, international support and educating the population. His plan was to raise up the people to abolish the monarchy instead of drive out foreign enemy, restore nation's independence first. He asked the French to live up to their civilisasion mission and criticizing them for their exploitation. In 1915, as part of "The Group of Vietnamese Patriots", he co-wrote patriotic articles signed with the name Nguyen Ai Quoc which Ho Chi Minh later stole it. In 1908, he was arrested and sent to Con Dao island. In 1911, he was pardoned and sentenced to house arrest. He said "I would rather return to prison than have partial freedom". He wrote 10 characteristics needed to improve the common populace 1. die for your believe 2. own a profession 3. have sense of adventure & travel the world 4. have the spirit of caring, love and help each other 5. grow financial system through honesty 6. get rid of tradition that bankrupt poor families 7. innovate instead of being stagnant 8. Hard work & organize over laziness 9. Self-reliance and avoid superstition 10. As political leaders, one should put the benefit of the people above all and not for personal gain.

Nguyen Thai Hoc (1908-1930), leader of Vietnamese Nationallist Party (lanh tu Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang (VNQDD)) sought independence from French colonial rule from 1927 to 1954. The "Yen Bai mutiny" was a revolt to inspire a wider uprising in an attempt to overthrow the colonial regime and establish independence. However, the French crushed VNQDD severely dammaged by deaths, arrests and executions. Hoc was executed along with 11 VNQDD members on June 17, 1930.

Right picture: Pho Duc Chinh, the 23 years old members of VNQDD. Before he stepped up to the guillotine, he requested to face the blade. He proudly screamed "Viet Nam van tue" (Viet Nam forever).

Ngo Dinh Diem (1901-1963). First president of South Vietnam: Oct 1955-Nov 2, 1963. Single, roman catholic and staunch anti-communist. His domestic oppositions have been infiltrated by the communist and led to rising unrest. He was overthrown in a US-backed military coup and executed along with his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu by ARVN officer Nguyen Van Nhung, inside Cha Tam church; After the victory of Viet Minh at Dien Bien Phu, the Viet Minh and China Communist gain control over entire North Viet Nam. The Viet Minh has great supports from Soviet and China: Over 3000 Chinese advisors were participated in Dien Bien Phu; French withdrawal from Indochina resulted in the 1954 Geneva Accords. Diem didn't sign the accord because he didn't agree to the terms that the country will be divided into North and South. Diem denied the ability to vote for unification of Viet Nam, he believed "Ho Chi Minh and the communist could not win the election, so they will sabotage it. Never regret a non-existed general election". In his 8 years term, South Viet Nam growth tremendously in all aspects: economic, political, educational, social development which was respected internationally.

Ho Chi Minh and the communist






  VIET NAM's HEROES & HEROINES
Cc cuc Khi ngha tiêu biu chng Trung Quc xâm lc th k 1-10
Nm

H Tên; Quê qun; Công trng ch yu

40-43 Hai B Trng Ht Môn Mê Linh (Vnh Ph), chng Ðông Hn, lnh o nhân dân Giao Ch Cu Chân, Nht Nam, Hp Ph, lt ch ô h thu 65 thnh, ginh c lp, lm vua 3 nm
137-138 Khu Liên Tng Lâm (Qung Nam), chng Ðông Hn. Nhân dân qun Giao Ch, Cu Chân, hng ng ni dy t thnh git Trng Li
157-160 Chu Ðt C Phong (Thanh Ha), chng Ðông Hn. Nhân dân qun Nht Nam hng ng ph qun tr T Ph, git Thi Th Ngh Thc
178-181 Lng Long Giao Ch, chng Ðông Hn. Nhân dân Giao Ch, Hp Ph, Ô H, Cu Chân, Nht Nam, ni dy nh chim cc qun huyn
248 B Triu ni Linh Sn (Thanh Ha), chng Ngô, lnh o nhân dân qun Cu Chân, Giao Ch, cng anh l Triu Quc Ðt nh chim cc thnh, p, huyn
299-319 Triu Ch Cu Chân chng Ðông Tn, ni dy vây quân thnh nh ui Thi Th
319-323 Lng Thc Tân Xng (Vnh Ph) chng Ðông Tn nh chim Châu Tr Long Biên
468-485 L trng Nhân v L Thc Hin Giao Châu chng Tng. Ni dy git ht thuc h, tng s ca Th S, ginh c lp gn 30 nm
542-548 L Bôn chng Lng, lnh o nhân dân Châu Giao ni dy chim thnh Long Biên, ginh c lp 6 nm xây dng nh nc Vn Xuân hiu l L Nam Ð
548-602 Triu Quang Phc m D Trch (Hi Hng) chng Lng, nh ui quân xâm luc thu thnh Long Biên, bo v c lp 52 nm (550-602)
687 L T Tin v Ðinh Kin Giao Châu chng Ðng, nh ph ph thnh Tng Bnh, git quan li ô h l Lu Din Hu.
722 Mai Thc Loan ni Hng Sn (Ngh Tnh) chng Ðng, liên kt vi 32 Châu K My (thiu s). Nhân dân Lâm p (Chiêm Thnh), Chân Lp (Campuchia), Kim Lân (M Lai), nh chim tr s Tng Bnh
766-798 Phng Hng cng em l Phng Hi Ðng Lâm (H Sn Bnh) chng Ðng, chim Ðng Lâm, Phong Châu, chim ph thnh Tng Bnh
803 Vng Qu Nguyên lnh o quân s Ba Thnh (H Ni) chng Ðng nh ui quan li
819-820 Dng Thanh Giao Châu (Ngh Tnh) chng Ðng, nh chim ph thnh, git cht quan li l Tng C
906-930 H Khc: Khc Tha D, Khc Ho, Khc Tha M, Hng Châu (Hi Hng) chng Ðng, nh chim thnh Tng Bnh, lt ch ô h ginh c lp 24 nm
931-937 Dng Ðnh Ngh i Châu (Thanh Ha) chng Nam Hn, chim thnh Ði La, git cht tng gic l Trnh Bo, bo v c lp
938 Ngô Quyn i ph quân Nam Hn trên sông Bch Ðng, git cht tng gic l Hong Tho, m u thi ky` c lp lâu di

THOI KY DAU TRANH GIANH DOC LOC DAN TOC
Trai hon 1,000 nam, cac tap doan phong kien phuong bac, tu Ch'in, Han, Sui, Tang, Sung, Yuan, Ming, Manchu den China, da thay phien nhau thuoc hien muu do xam luoc va dong hoa dan toc ta. Bang nhung chinh sac ap buc boc lot namg ne, chinh sach dong hoa tham doc. Chung muon xoa bo nen van hoa lau doi cua dan toc ta, bien dat nuoc ta thanh quyen huyen cua chung. Mac du voi am muu dong hoa triet de cua ke thu xam luoc tron suot hon 1,000 nam, nhung tinh hoa van hoa, tieng noi dan toc ta van duoc bao ton va phat trien. Voi tinh than doc lap dan toc, quyet khong chiu cam tam lam no le. Nhan dan ta da lien tuc vung day chong lai ke thu. Tieu bieu la cuoc khoi nghia do Trung Sisters, ly bi lanh dao. Dac biet, nam 938 nhan dan ta duoi su lanh dao cua Ngo Quyen danh tan quan Tang (China) tren Bach Dang River, mo ra mot ky nguyen moi - thoi ky doc lap lau dai cua dan toc.
Danh Nhân Danh Tng thi Trn
Nm H Tên Tc phong Quê qun Công trng Ch yu
1193-1264 Trn Th Ð Thng Quc Thi S Tc Mc Nam H T chc vng triu
1231-1300 Trn Quc Tun Hng Ðo Ði Vng Quc Công Tc Mc Nam H Lnh o nhân dân chng quân Nguyên-Mông (1284-1288)
?-1291 Trn Quang Khi Chiêu Minh Ði Vng Thng Tng Thng Long Chng Dng, Hm T (1285)
1253-1330 Trn Nht Dut Chiêu Vn Vng T Thanh Thi S Thng Long Chn gic Nguyên Tuyên Quang, Ngh An, Hm T (1285)
?-1339 Trn Khan Du Nhân Hu Vng Phiên Ky Tng Quân Chi Linh Hi Hng Ph tan on thuyn lng gic Vn Ðôn (1288)
1255-1330 Phm Ng Lo Diên Suy Thng Tng Quân An Thi Hi Hng Ðnh bi ch Vn Kip & Bch Ðng
? Nguyn Khoi Lit Hu Tng Quân Hi Hng Tây Kt (1285) & Bch Ðng (1288)
?-1285 Trn Bnh Trng Bo Ngha Vng Tng Tiên Phong ? Anh dng hy sinh chn gic sông Thiên Mc
?-1285 Trn Quc Ton Hoi Vn Hu Nam H Trn Chng Dng, hy sinh trong trn Nh Nguyt
?-1285 H Ðc Phu Ðao T Qung Ha Vnh Ph Lnh o nhân dân thiu s hy sinh Qung Ha
?-1330 Ð Khc Chung Ðai Hanh Khiên ? Chng quân Nguyên ln 2 (1285)
? Yt Kiêu Gia tng ca Trn Hng Ðo Gia Lc Hi Hng Nhiu chin công chng quân Nguyên xâm lc
? D Tng Gia tng ca Trn Hng Ðo Gia Lc Hi Hng Nhiu chin công chng quân Nguyên xâm lc
? Phm S Mnh Nh th - Nhap Noi Hanh Khiên Kinh Môn Hi Hng Tc phm vn th. Ði s sang nh Nguyên (1345)
?-1354 Trng Hn Siêu Nh th - Tham Tri Chinh S Gia Khanh Ninh Bnh Tc phm vn th
? Nguyn Thuyên Nh th Ha Ho Vnh Ph Tc phm vn th ch Nôm

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